DDEX Standard

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A Party administrating Rights on behalf of one or more RightsControllers (in the context of this standard a Collecting Publisher).


A grouping of one or more DDEX Messages to be processed by the recipient together.

Collecting Publisher

A RightsController who is, at the time of assertion, controlling the right to collect royalties for a specific RightsType in a specific Territory for a specific Musical Work. Collecting Publishers may ask Administrators to administer some of their rights. Note that a MusicalWork may have zero, one or many Collecting publishers.

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Distribution Share

The proportion of the overall Musical Work that has been assigned to a Collecting Publisher or Administrator.  Note that a Writer can have zero, one or many Original Publishers, and hence zero, one or many Distribution Shares.

Manuscript Share

The  proportion of a Musical Work written by a Writer, as agreed between the Writers.  Typically represented as a percentage or a fraction.  Manuscript Shares may occasionally vary by territory and/or rights type.

Musical Work

A Work intended to be perceivable as a combination of sounds, with or without accompanying text.

Any words that are intended to be expressed with a MusicalWork (often termed Lyrics) form part of that MusicalWork; not all MusicalWorks have Lyrics.
A MusicalWork may be expressed and fixed to become part of a SoundRecording or a Video Recording, or may be used to create notated music (sheet music, scores, instrumental parts) or sound generation codes (such as MIDI files).
In some cases, the MusicalWork comes into existence simultaneously with its expression. This is common in extemporised forms such as jazz music.

Original Publisher

 A RightsController who is assigned rights directly by the Writer. Note that a writer may have zero, one or many Original Publishers.

Original Publisher Share

The proportion of the overall Musical Work that a writer has assigned to an Original Publisher.  Note that each Writer can have zero, one or many Original Publishers, and hence zero, one or many Original Publisher Shares.


A Release is an abstract entity representing a bundle of one or more Resources compiled by an Issuer. The Resources in Releases are normally primarily sound recordings or music audio-visual recordings, but this is not invariably the case. The Release is not itself the item of trade (or “Product”). Products have more extensive attributes than Releases; one Release may be disseminated in many different Products.


A digital fixation of an expression of an abstract Work (such as a sound recording, a video, an image, software or a passage of text). Resources are individual assets that make up a Release. Typical Resources are sound recordings, video clips and cover art images.

Right Share

A percentage or fraction of a right for a Musical Work for a particular time and place in which a party claims a controlling interest. Note: controlling interest includes ownership and/or administration.

Rights Controller

A Party who owns and/or controls rights in a Musical Work or other Creation.

In the context of this standard a Rights Controller is normally a Collecting Publisher or a Collective Rights Organisation.

Creations include Musical Works, Sound Recordings and other Resources as well as Releases. Rights Controllers are, in the context of a licence agreement, often referred to as Licensors.

Note: In many cases a RightsController is also the Licensor.

Rights Type

The type of right covered by a RightShare as defined by relevant law. Rights Types vary between territories. Typical rights types include mechanical rights, performing rights and synchronisation rights.


A creative creator of the musical or lyrical elements of a Musical Work. Writers include Adapters, Arrangers, Authors, Composers. ComposerLyricists, Librettists, Lyricists, NonLyricAuthors and Translators.

Writer Share

See Manuscript Share.

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