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DDEX standards make extensive use of “allowed value sets” (AVS), i.e. controlled lists of well-defined terms. Typical examples are currency and territory code lists (that DDEX imports from the relevant ISO standards) and classifications for how consumers may interact with a musical Release. The two main ones for this are the UseTypeand the CommercialModelTypethe UseType and the CommercialModelType.

AVSs have one advantage: they allow the sender and recipient of a message to communicate precise semantics. If the sender includes the TerritoryCodeof DEinto a Dealthe TerritoryCode of DE into a Deal, the recipient knows precisely where thisDealis this Deal is valid: in the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany (and only there). And when the Deal contains a CommercialModelTypeof AdvertisementSupportedModelthen CommercialModelType of AdvertisementSupportedModel then the recipient knows that the “service or product offering is financed by revenue generated from the sale of advertising”. And if a contributor is listed as being having played the Roleof a MasteringEngineerthe Role of a MasteringEngineer, the recipient of the message knows precisely, thanks to the DDEX Data Dictionary [LINK]Dictionary,what this means.

AVSs do also have a drawback: they limit flexibility. For example, DDEX currently has no means to communicate a commercial model where the consumer barters a different piece of content against the Release the consumer is given access to. DDEX has the means to support such cases [LINK]cases but the principle remains: AVSs reduce the flexibility as the cycle required to add new AVS terms, takes time.


Code Block
<DisplayCreditText>Johnny on the fiddle</DisplayCreditText>



A DSP that receives such an InstrumentTypeand DisplayCreditTextwould be expected to display “Johnny on the fiddle” in the credits for the recording or Release. If the DSP’s system supports this, a hyperlink to a separate page for John may be added. The DSP may also include John as on a separate page of violinists.


The “raw” information would be:



Display Credit



Johnny on the fiddle


The string in the DisplayCreditmeans the DisplayCreditmeans that the sender of the ERN message expects the DSP to replace the entireentire usual credit string made up from the raw instrument and contributor information.