for the purpose of electronic distribution to individual consumers, directly or through intermediaries
Process by which an organisation that wishes to use DDEX standards with a business partner tests the Conformance of that business partner using this Standard.
A Resource that is a main Resource of a Release. A change in a Primary Resource typically requires a new Release Identifier, whereas change in a Secondary Resource does not.
Private Conformance Agency (PCA)
A Conformance Agencies that is not appointed by Digital Data Exchange, LLC (DDEX) to certify that a party Conforms to one or more Conformance Point.
A Project combines together many Sound Recordings, Recording Components, Sessions, Musical Works and Data Carriers. A project might be a 12 song album, or it might simply be a remix. A project could be a compilation of older recordings from different projects. And a project could also be a "Various Artists" type of compilation.
A Manifestation of a Release (or another Resource) which is made available to Consumers, by sale, loan or other means. The attributes of a Release in its digital manifestation as a Product may be technical (e.g., the codec or bit rate); a mode of distribution (e.g., downloading or streaming); or a commercial term (e.g., price).
A subset of a DDEX standard. Profiles define how to use the capabilities of a DDEX standard in a specific commercial context.
A line in a flat file containing data about a specific data entity. The Record type is indicated in the first Cell. Data elements are contained in Cells which are separated by a specifically defined Delimiter.
The combining of individual files into a common groupings within a multitrack recording. Examples include “Snare Drum”, “Lead Vocal Comp”, “Lead Guitar” or “Percussion”
A Release is an abstract entity representing a bundle of one or more Resources compiled by an Issuer
. The Resources in Releases are normally primarily sound recordings or music audio-visual recordings, but this is not invariably the case. The Release is not itself the item of trade (or “Product”). Products have more extensive attributes than Releases; one Release may be disseminated in many different Products.
Release Creator is an organisation which is the owner of copyrights in sound and/or music audiovisual recordings and/or exclusive licensees of copyrights in sound and/or music audiovisual recordings.
Release Distributor is an organisation, which is duly authorised by a Release Creator to offer Releases manifested in the form of Products to consumers. Release Distributors include Digital Service Providers (DSPs) and Mobile Service Providers (MSPs) as well as other organisations.
A set of Releases that are closely related. A typical example of a Release Family is an
album communicated as a Main Release plus all the Track Releases whose Resources together form the Album.
A subset of a DDEX message suite standard that limits the use of data fields for use in a specific business scenario. Release Profiles do typically limit the descriptions of Releases and their constituent parts and do not address Products based on such Releases.
Release Profiles are defined by DDEX and are themselves DDEX standards.
REST is an architecture style of networked systems. REST is an acronym
for Representational State Transfer.
A digital fixation of an expression of an abstract Work (such as a sound recording, a video, an image, software or a passage of text). Resources are individual assets that make up a Release. Typical Resources are sound recordings, video clips and cover art images.
The amount of money generated in accordance with the commercial relationship between Licensee and Licensor for the distribution of Releases to consumers.
A Party that is authorised by a Rights Controller to administer some or all rights in one or more Creations for specific territories, Rights types, Usage Types and Commercial Model Types (which may be anything up to and including all rights for the world, in perpetuity, for all types of Usage and for all types of Commercial Models). This may or may not include authority for the Rights Administrator to also be a Licensor.
A Rights Administrator may or may not be the Message Sender or Message Recipient of a message in a specific information exchange defined by a DDEX Standard.
A Party that controls rights in one or more Creations in respect of some or all rights for specific territories, time periods, Rights Types, Usage Types and Commercial Model Types (which may be anything up to and including all rights for the world, in perpetuity, for all types of Usage and for all types of Commercial Models). Creations include Musical Works, Sound Recordings and other Resources as well as Releases.
A Rights Controller is in many cases also the Licensor.
A Rights Controller may be a human being or other legal person or corporate entity.
A Rights Controller may or may not also be the Rights Administrator, the Licensing Agent or the Rights Holder.
A Rights Controller may or may not be the Message Sender or Message Recipient of a message in a specific information exchange defined by a DDEX Standard.
A Party that holds the rights in respect of some or all rights in one or more Creations for specific territories, time periods, Rights Types, Usage Types and Commercial Model Types (which may be anything up to and including all rights for the world, in perpetuity, for all types of Usage and for all types of Commercial Models).
A Rights Holder may be a human being or other legal person or corporate entity.
A Rights Holder may or may not also be a Licensor and/or a Rights Administrator and/or a Licensing Agent and may authorise other Parties to fulfil those roles.
A Rights Holder may or may not be the Message Sender or Message Recipient of a message in a specific information exchange defined by a DDEX Standard.
A Rights Holder is sometimes be referred to as a Rights Owner.
Synonym of Rights Holder.
A percentage or fraction of a right for a Musical Work for a particular time and place in which a party claims a controlling interest. Note: controlling interest includes ownership and/or administration.
The type of right covered by a RightShare as defined by relevant law. Rights Types vary between territories. Typical rights types include mechanical rights, performing rights and synchronisation rights.
An XML file created in accordance with this standard.
A device or computer software application that ingests, creates or processes RIN Files.
Distribution of a
product to end consumers. For the avoidance of doubt, the term “sales” includes all forms of distribution of products, whether revenue was generated, or not and, where revenue is generated, regardless of the business model used to do so.
The combination of one or more territories, one or more currencies, one or more use types, one or more commercial model types and/or one or more service descriptions for which a sales/usage report is being created.
The combination of one territory, one currency, one use types, one commercial model types and one service descriptions for which a sales/usage report is being created. It is permissible, subject to both parties agreeing, to communicate multiple Sales Contexts in one sales/usage report.
Sales/Usage Report Message
See Flat File Sales Report Messages (DSRF).
Delimiter used to separate data elements within a single Cell.
A Resource that is not a main Resource of a Release. It supports the Primary Resources (examples are lyrics, cover art etc). A change in a Primary Resource typically requires a new Release Identifier, whereas change in a Secondary Resource does not.
The location where musical works are recorded. During the creation of a Sound Recording, sessions may take place in many locations, including the recording studio as well as live venues, remote locations and the like.
A variant of a Sales/Usage report in accordance with this standard where all descriptive metadata as well as sales/usage figures for each sales "line" into a single Record. Each Single-Record-Block Variant has been derived from a Multi-Record Block Variant by collapsing Blocks into single
SRxx Records. The base Multi-Record Block Variant does not have to be published as a DDEX standard.
An audible persistent manifestation of a subject (often but not necessarily of a performance).
The term “studio” denotes any facility for sound recording, mixing and mastering.
The term specifically includes large studios (such as the ones in Abbey Road in London) as well as digital audio workstations (DAW) installed on a personal computer and used in a musician’s home and portable units used for recording live events.
A Party who directs, and has overall creative and technical oversight of, the entire recording project and the individual recording sessions that are a part of the project. The Producer participates in and/or supervises the recording session and works directly with the Artist, Musicians and Engineers. The Studio Producer makes creative, technical and aesthetic decisions that realize the goals of both the Artist and the Sound Recording Copyright Holder in the creation of musical content. The Studio Producer may perform direct Performances, choose final takes or versions, and oversees the selection of songs, Musicians, singers, Arrangers, studios, etc. The Studio Producer in collaboration with the artist, assigns credits to Performers and technical personnel, and is responsible for supplying accurate crediting information to the record label or media company as official documentation. Other duties of the Studio Producer may include, but are not limited to, overseeing other staffing needs, keeping budgets and schedules, adhering to deadlines, supervising mastering and overall quality control.
Note: A Studio Producer is a person and thus may contrast with the role of an Initial Producer.
A Release that is being created from one or more of the primary Resources of a Head Release, typically by the Message Sender.
For the purpose of this standard these Sub-Releases are being created by the Message Sender who is making Releases, and tracks from such Releases, available to consumers. These “unbundled tracks”, that is, all the tracks from a Release each made available separately, are the simplest form of Sub-Releases.
A unique identifier that links several Web Service Calls/Responses together.
A Release, communicated in a Release notification that does not represent the main purpose for sending the
NewReleaseMessage. When communicating a 10-track album, a typical
NewReleaseMessage would contain, besides the Main Release, ten Track Releases (i.e. one for each sound recording that together make up the album).
An Agreement signed by two Parties.
In the context of collective rights management a Unilateral Agreement establishes the framework for the payment of monies collected by one Collective Management Organisation and due to Rights Holders represented by the other. Such payments are not reciprocal and are made from the collecting Party to the Receiving Party only.
See also Bilateral Agreement
The identification of the Releases and Resources that actually get exploited by Licensees exercising a range of business and delivery models for the distribution of Releases to consumers, including the amount of use of each Release or Resource.
An Agent, that may be a human being or other legal person or corporate entity, that interacts with a Creation or provides access to a Creation to Consumers.
A modern set of web technologies that allow small pieces of information, typically in the form of XML files, to be exchanged. Augmented with FTP (or other file exchange mechanisms) they can be used to communicate Releases along the music supply chain.
Web Service Call
The sending of an XML document to a port/address on a web server, using HTTP or
Web Service Response
The sending of an XML document in direct response to a Web Service Call, using HTTP or
The WsAcknowledgementMessage may not be used as a Web Service Response unless expressly specified within a specific standard.
For the avoidance of doubt: the appropriate response is always the message indicated in the appropriate Choreography.
A creative creator of the musical or lyrical elements of a Musical Work. Writers include Adapters, Arrangers, Authors, Composers. ComposerLyricists, Librettists, Lyricists, NonLyricAuthors and Translators.