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An XML message notifying the successful receipt of a Batch or File. In an FTP context this means successful ingestion. In a Web Service context in means the reply to a Web Service Call.
A Party administrating Rights on behalf of one or more RightsControllers (in the context of this standard a Collecting Publisher).
An Assertion made by two or more Parties (Asserters).
Appointed Conformance Agency (ACA)
A Conformance Agency that is appointed by Digital Data Exchange, LLC (DDEX) to certify that a party Conforms to a Conformance Set.
Note that, at this stage, neither are there any Appointed Conformance Agencies in existence nor are there any specific plans for DDEX to appoint such Appointed Conformance Agencies.
A company that sends or receives DDEX messages on behalf of other companies. Aggregators enable smaller companies to participate in the DDEX ecosystem.
Formally, the Atom Syndication Format, is an XML language used for web service feeds. The Atom Publishing Protocol is a simple HTTP-based protocol for creating and updating web resources.
A grouping of one or more
Release Distributor together. The concept of a batch is used in one of the FTP Profiles of this ERN Choreography Standard.
DDEX Messages to be processed by the recipient together.
An Agreement signed by two Parties.
In the context of collective rights management a
Bilateral Agreement establishes the framework for reciprocal exchange of monies collected by one Collective Management Organisation and due to Rights Controllers represented by the other. This may include reciprocal authorisation of rights.
A group of Records in a Sales Report Message created in accordance with this standard, comprising the description of a “head” Release or Resource, its constituent Resource(s), any Releases that were created by the Message Sender based on the head Release (including single-track Releases), plus any associated Usage, Revenue or Sales Records. All Records in a Block carry the same Block Identifier and all Records with the same Record Identifier belong to the same Block.
All Records of a Block are contiguously provided in the Sales Report Message created in accordance with this standard.
A Block collates all Records within a report created in accordance with this standard that describe all Usage, Revenue or Sales of the “head” Release and its constituent parts or “head” Resource (notwithstanding summary Records and information contained in the header record,
The identifier of a Block shall be unique within a Sales Report Message created in accordance with this standard.
A subset of a DDEX message suite standard that limits the use of data fields for use in a specific business scenario. Business Profiles do typically not limit the descriptions of Releases and their constituent parts but focus on Products based on such Releases.
Business Profiles are defined by DDEX and are themselves DDEX standards.
A well-defined collection of items such as rights in Musical Works, Right Shares and/or Releases.
Note that the XML tags use the spelling “catalog” instead of catalogue.
An individual data element in a Record. Cells are separated by Delimiters.
A RightsController who is, at the time of assertion, controlling the right to collect royalties for a specific RightsType in a specific Territory for a specific
Musical Work. Collecting Publishers may ask Administrators to administer some of their rights. Note that a MusicalWork may have zero, one or many Collecting publishers.
The exercise of copyright and related rights by organisations acting in the interests of and on behalf of at least one Rights Controller usually in respect of the same class of Creations or Rights.
Collective Management Organisation (CMO)
A Party (that is usually owned or controlled by its members and/or organised on a not-for-profit basis) that, as its sole or main purpose, administers copyright or related rights on behalf of at least two Rights Controllers, for the collective benefit of those Rights Contorllers where it is authorised by law or by way of assignment or Licence.
A Collective Management Organisation may also be a Licensor, a Rights Administrator, a Licensing Agent or a Rights Holder.
A Collective Management Organisation may or may not be the Message Sender or Message Recipient of a message in a specific information exchange defined by a DDEX Standard.
The terms compliance or compliant are used synonymous to Conformance and Conformant.
Full Conformance or Partial Conformance.
A Party that offers Conformance certification services to test conformance of other parties. A CA can either be a Private Conformance Agency (PCA) or an Appointed Conformance Agency (ACA).
Conformance Agencies are entitled to issue Conformance Certificates.
A document awarded to companies that have proven that their supply chain is Conformant to a DDEX Standard in accordance with this Standard. It may be possible to issue multiple Conformance Certificates to a single company with respect to a single Conformance Set, if the company has several, largely independent supply chains.
The issuance of Conformance Certificate shall be done in accordance with a well-documented and published set of policies.
Conformance Certificate Register
A register of all Conformance Certificates, maintained and published by DDEX or by an authorised third party on behalf of DDEX.
For Partial Conformant Parties, the Conformance Certificate Register shall include information about which Conformance Points have not passed the Conformance Test and how.
The smallest set of criteria for which Conformance is defined in this Standard.
A Conformance Point is an individual numbered rule that forms part of a Release Profile or Business Profile.
A combination of Conformance Points. Conformance Sets are the smallest criteria for which Conformance can be asserted.
For Message Suite Standards, a Conformance Set is equivalent to a Business Profile or Release Profile.
An Organisation that uses this standard to test whether a company is Conformant to a specific Conformance Point. A Conformance Tester may be CA
Conformance Test Report
A report issued by a Conformance Agency indicating that a Party has successfully passed a Conformance Test (or not). Conformance Test Reports are issued with respect to one or more Conformance Point(s).
Conformance Test Reports contain information whether Full or Partial Conformance was achieved and, if only partial Conformance is achieved, a list of all failed Conformance Points.
A parameter given to each Conformance Point that can be used to determine if a Party’s supply chain is Partially Conformant or Fully Conformant.
Conformance Weightings are documented in the Relevant Profile Standard in pointy brackets as follows:
<Conformance Weighting: 1>
An entity in a DDEX Message that has the technical cardinality of 0-1 or 0-n but that is mandatory when a DDEX message is sent in a specific commercial context.
Contractually Mandatory fields may, however, be mandatory when a DDEX message is sent in a specific commercial context. In such circumstances, a message is deemed conformant only if and when it contains all the “contractually mandatory” fields as agreed by Message Sender and Message Recipient.
An individual end user of a Creation.
An Output made, directly or indirectly, by one or more human beings. Creations include Works (including Musical Works), Resources (including Sound Recordings and Videos) and Releases.
A Deal is what transforms a Release into a product. A Deal states how a Release may be made available to consumers.
A character that delineates, in a flat file, either one Record from another Record or one Cell from another Cell.
Digital Audio Workstation (DAW)
A Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) is an electronic device or computer software application for recording, editing and producing audio files such as songs, musical pieces, human speech or sound effects.
The physical entity created during the recording project. Data Carriers can be linked to more than one Project, Session, Sound Recording, or set of Recording Components.
Digital Service Provider (DSP)
A Digital Service Provider (DSP), a Party making Releases available to Consumers or other DSPs over a public Telecom network. This includes MSPs (Mobile Service Providers) and ISPs (Internet Service Providers).
The proportion of the overall Musical Work that has been assigned to a Collecting Publisher or Administrator. Note that a Writer can have zero, one or many Original Publishers, and hence zero, one or many Distribution Shares.
A unique permutation of the Sound Recording. Elements can contain the original Recording Components ("Multitrack Master"), sub mixes of these components into common themes (Stems), or single mix files created from the combining of recording components (Master Mix, Instrumental Mix). A specific SKU or UPC can be set for each element.
Exclusive Rights Owner or Licensee
A company that is either the exclusive owner of all rights for a specific territory of all Resources within a Release or the sole licensee from an exclusive Rights Owner for sound recording/Resource rights for a The term “exclusive” here refers to those sound recording/Resource rights for a specific territory or set of territories.
A Resource stored as a single unit, normally in a file system on disk or magnetic tape
Flat File Sales Report Messages (DSRF)
A Sales Report Message created in accordance with the Digital Sales Reporting Message Suite Standards (Architecture and Profiles). A Flat File Sales Report Message may be split into several individual files.
A company’s supply chain is Fully Conformant to a specific Conformance Set when it fulfils all criteria laid down in the respective clause of this standard. Companies that are found to be Fully Conformant by a Conformance Agency are entitled to displaying a Conformance Certificate.
A Release, originally communicated by the owner (or its agent) of a sound recording or audio-visual recording to a Licensee who then distributed that Release to consumers, whose Usage, Revenue or Sales are described in a Sales Report Message created in accordance with this standard.
A Resource whose Usage, Revenue or Sales are described in a Sales Report Message created in accordance with this standard. Head Resources are not communicated as part of a Head Release.
A Party that initiates the creation of a Sound Recording or Resource and is sometimes referred to as a commissioning rights holder. An Initial Producer may be a person or an Organisation and the term contrasts with the role of a Studio Producer.
A company that plays both roles of Release Creator (e.g. in communications to downstream Release Distributors) and Release Distributor (e.g. in communications upstream Release Creators).
to whom permission to use a Creation (e.g.: MusicalWork, Sound Recording or Release) is granted in a License Agreement.
A Party that is granted a Licence in respect of rights in one or more Creations, by a Licensor. The Licensee may be a human being or other legal person or corporate entity. The Licensee may or may not be the Message Sender or Message Recipient of a message in a specific information exchange defined by a DDEX Standard.
that is granted a Licence in respect of rights in one or more Creations, by a Licensor. The Licensee may be a human being or other legal person or corporate entity. The Licensee may or may not be the Message Sende or Message Recipient of a message in a specific information exchange defined by a DDEX Standard.
A Party that acts, in the context of a Licence, for a Licensor. Licensing Agents may act for a Rights Controller in the context of a Licence agreement. The Licensing Agent may or may not be the Message Sender or Message Recipient of a message in a specific information exchange defined by a DDEX Standard.
An Agent granting permission to use a Creation (here: MusicalWork, Sound Recording or Release) in a LicenseAgreement.
A Party that grants a Licence in respect of rights in one or more Creations to one or more Licensees in accordance with the authorities it has been granted to do so by one or more Rights Controller(s), Rights Administrator(s) (where applicable), Licensing Agent(s) (where applicable) or Rights Holder(s). The Licensor may be a human being or other legal person or corporate entity. The Licensor may or may not also be the Rights Controller, the Rights Administrator, the Licensing Agent or the Rights Holder in the Creation(s) that are the subject of the Licence granting the rights. The Licensor may or may not be the Message Sender or Message Recipient of a message in a specific information exchange defined by a DDEX Standard.
Musical is a Work whose expression is a
A Release, communicated in a Release notification that represents the main purpose for sending the
NewReleaseMessage. When communicating an album, the Main Release would be said Album Release. A typical
NewReleaseMessage contains, besides the Main Release, one or more Track Releases.
An XML message signifying the delivery of a Batch.
The proportion of a Musical Work written by a Writer, as agreed between the Writers. Typically represented as a percentage or a fraction. Manuscript Shares may occasionally vary by territory and/or rights type.
A series of message calls and their responses which together communicate a more comprehensive level of meaning between the two business partners.
A Party that receives a Message formatted in accordance with a DDEX Standard from a Message Sender. The Message Recipient may also be one or more of a Licensor, a Licensee, a Rights Controller, a Rights Administrator, a Licensing Agent or a Rights Holder.
A Party that sends a Message formatted in accordance with a DDEX Standard to a Message Recipient. The Message Sender may also be one or more of a Licensor, a Licensee, a Rights Controller, a Rights Administrator, a Licensing Agent or a Rights Holder.
A variant of a Sales/Usage report in accordance with this standard where descriptive metadata and sales/usage figures are provided in Blocks of (usually) comprising multiple Records. Multi-Record-Block Variant is the default variant for sales/usage reports in accordance with this standard.
Music Licensing Company
A company that is duly authorised to issue licences for the use of SoundRecordings and music videos. Music Licensing Companies may issue licences on behalf of phonogram producers, performers or both.
Note: Music Licensing Companies were previously referred to as Producers (and/or Performers) Collection Societies (PCSs).
intended to be perceivable as a combination of sounds, with or without accompanying text.
Any words that are intended to be expressed with a MusicalWork (often termed Lyrics) form part of that MusicalWork; not all MusicalWorks have Lyrics.
A MusicalWork may be expressed and fixed to become part of a SoundRecording or a Video Recording, or may be used to create notated music (sheet music, scores, instrumental parts) or sound generation codes (such as MIDI files).
In some cases, the MusicalWork comes into existence simultaneously with its expression. This is common in extemporised forms such as jazz music.
The concept of ensuring that a party cannot repudiate, or refute, the sending or receiving of a message.
A RightsController who is assigned rights directly by the Writer. Note that a writer may have zero, one or many Original Publishers.
Original Publisher Share
The proportion of the overall Musical Work that a writer has assigned to an Original Publisher. Note that each Writer can have zero, one or many Original Publishers, and hence zero, one or many Original Publisher Shares.
A company’s supply chain is Fully Conformant to a specific Conformance Set when it fulfils well-defined subset of all criteria laid down in the respective clause of this standard. Companies that are found to be Partiallly Conformant by a Conformance Agency are entitled to displaying a Conformance Certificate.
The content of one Batch to be transmitted via the a Message Exchange Protocol. Payload does not include manifests or acknowledgements.
A collection of Resources, combined with a deal that is marketed or sold as a commodity.
Process by which an organisation that wishes to use DDEX standards with a business partner tests the Conformance of that business partner using this Standard.
A Resource that is a main Resource of a Release. A change in a Primary Resource typically requires a new Release Identifier, whereas change in a Secondary Resource does not.
Private Conformance Agency (PCA)
A Conformance Agencies that is not appointed by Digital Data Exchange, LLC (DDEX) to certify that a party Conforms to one or more Conformance Point.
A Project combines together many Sound Recordings, Recording Components, Sessions, Musical Works and Data Carriers. A project might be a 12 song album, or it might simply be a remix. A project could be a compilation of older recordings from different projects. And a project could also be a "Various Artists" type of compilation.
A Manifestation of a Release (or another Resource) which is made available to Consumers, by sale, loan or other means. The attributes of a Release in its digital manifestation as a Product may be technical (e.g., the codec or bit rate); a mode of distribution (e.g., downloading or streaming); or a commercial term (e.g., price).
A subset of a DDEX standard. Profiles define how to use the capabilities of a DDEX standard in a specific commercial context.
for the purpose of electronic distribution to individual consumers, directly or through intermediaries
A line in a flat file containing data about a specific data entity. The Record type is indicated in the first Cell. Data elements are contained in Cells which are separated by a specifically defined Delimiter.
The combining of individual files into a common groupings within a multitrack recording. Examples include “Snare Drum”, “Lead Vocal Comp”, “Lead Guitar” or “Percussion”
A Release is an abstract entity representing a bundle of one or more Resources compiled by an Issuer
. The Resources in Releases are normally primarily sound recordings or music audio-visual recordings, but this is not invariably the case. The Release is not itself the item of trade (or “Product”). Products have more extensive attributes than Releases; one Release may be disseminated in many different Products.
Release Creator is an organisation which is the owner of copyrights in sound and/or music audiovisual recordings and/or exclusive licensees of copyrights in sound and/or music audiovisual recordings.
Release Distributor is an organisation, which is duly authorised by a Release Creator to offer Releases manifested in the form of Products to consumers. Release Distributors include Digital Service Providers (DSPs) and Mobile Service Providers (MSPs) as well as other organisations.
A set of Releases that are closely related. A typical example of a Release Family is an
album communicated as a Main Release plus all the Track Releases whose Resources together form the Album.
A subset of a DDEX message suite standard that limits the use of data fields for use in a specific business scenario. Release Profiles do typically limit the descriptions of Releases and their constituent parts and do not address Products based on such Releases.
Release Profiles are defined by DDEX and are themselves DDEX standards.
REST is an architecture style of networked systems. REST is an acronym
for Representational State Transfer.
A digital fixation of an expression of an abstract Work (such as a sound recording, a video, an image, software or a passage of text). Resources are individual assets that make up a Release. Typical Resources are sound recordings, video clips and cover art images.
A Party who owns and/or controls rights in a MusicalWork.
The amount of money generated in accordance with the commercial relationship between Licensee and Licensor for the distribution of Releases to consumers.
A Party that is authorised by a Rights Controller to administer some or all rights in one or more Creations for specific territories, Rights types, Usage Types and Commercial Model Types (which may be anything up to and including all rights for the world, in perpetuity, for all types of Usage and for all types of Commercial Models). This may or may not include authority for the Rights Administrator to also be a Licensor.
A Rights Administrator may or may not be the Message Sender or Message Recipient of a message in a specific information exchange defined by a DDEX Standard.
A Party that controls rights in one or more Creations in respect of some or all rights for specific territories, time periods, Rights Types, Usage Types and Commercial Model Types (which may be anything up to and including all rights for the world, in perpetuity, for all types of Usage and for all types of Commercial Models). Creations include Musical Works, Sound Recordings and other Resources as well as Releases.
A Rights Controller is in many cases also the Licensor.
A Rights Controller may be a human being or other legal person or corporate entity.
A Rights Controller may or may not also be the Rights Administrator, the Licensing Agent or the Rights Holder.
A Rights Controller may or may not be the Message Sender or Message Recipient of a message in a specific information exchange defined by a DDEX Standard.
A Party that holds the rights in respect of some or all rights in one or more Creations for specific territories, time periods, Rights Types, Usage Types and Commercial Model Types (which may be anything up to and including all rights for the world, in perpetuity, for all types of Usage and for all types of Commercial Models).
A Rights Holder may be a human being or other legal person or corporate entity.
A Rights Holder may or may not also be a Licensor and/or a Rights Administrator and/or a Licensing Agent and may authorise other Parties to fulfil those roles.
A Rights Holder may or may not be the Message Sender or Message Recipient of a message in a specific information exchange defined by a DDEX Standard.
A Rights Holder is sometimes be referred to as a Rights Owner.
Synonym of Rights Holder.
A percentage or fraction of a right for a Musical Work for a particular time and place in which a party claims a controlling interest. Note: controlling interest includes ownership and/or administration.
The type of right covered by a RightShare as defined by relevant law. Rights Types vary between territories. Typical rights types include mechanical rights, performing rights and synchronisation rights.
An XML file created in accordance with this standard.
A device or computer software application that ingests, creates or processes RIN Files.
Distribution of a
product to end consumers. For the avoidance of doubt, the term “sales” includes all forms of distribution of products, whether revenue was generated, or not and, where revenue is generated, regardless of the business model used to do so.
The combination of one or more territories, one or more currencies, one or more use types, one or more commercial model types and/or one or more service descriptions for which a sales/usage report is being created.
The combination of one territory, one currency, one use types, one commercial model types and one service descriptions for which a sales/usage report is being created. It is permissible, subject to both parties agreeing, to communicate multiple Sales Contexts in one sales/usage report.
Sales/Usage Report Message
See Flat File Sales Report Messages (DSRF).
Delimiter used to separate data elements within a single Cell.
A Resource that is not a main Resource of a Release. It supports the Primary Resources (examples are lyrics, cover art etc). A change in a Primary Resource typically requires a new Release Identifier, whereas change in a Secondary Resource does not.
The location where musical works are recorded. During the creation of a Sound Recording, sessions may take place in many locations, including the recording studio as well as live venues, remote locations and the like.
A variant of a Sales/Usage report in accordance with this standard where all descriptive metadata as well as sales/usage figures for each sales "line" into a single Record. Each Single-Record-Block Variant has been derived from a Multi-Record Block Variant by collapsing Blocks into single
SRxx Records. The base Multi-Record Block Variant does not have to be published as a DDEX standard.
An audible persistent manifestation of a subject (often but not necessarily of a performance).
The term “studio” denotes any facility for sound recording, mixing and mastering.
The term specifically includes large studios (such as the ones in Abbey Road in London) as well as digital audio workstations (DAW) installed on a personal computer and used in a musician’s home and portable units used for recording live events.
A Party who directs, and has overall creative and technical oversight of, the entire recording project and the individual recording sessions that are a part of the project. The Producer participates in and/or supervises the recording session and works directly with the Artist, Musicians and Engineers. The Studio Producer makes creative, technical and aesthetic decisions that realize the goals of both the Artist and the Sound Recording Copyright Holder in the creation of musical content. The Studio Producer may perform direct Performances, choose final takes or versions, and oversees the selection of songs, Musicians, singers, Arrangers, studios, etc. The Studio Producer in collaboration with the artist, assigns credits to Performers and technical personnel, and is responsible for supplying accurate crediting information to the record label or media company as official documentation. Other duties of the Studio Producer may include, but are not limited to, overseeing other staffing needs, keeping budgets and schedules, adhering to deadlines, supervising mastering and overall quality control.
Note: A Studio Producer is a person and thus may contrast with the role of an Initial Producer.
A Release that is being created from one or more of the primary Resources of a Head Release, typically by the Message Sender.
For the purpose of this standard these Sub-Releases are being created by the Message Sender who is making Releases, and tracks from such Releases, available to consumers. These “unbundled tracks”, that is, all the tracks from a Release each made available separately, are the simplest form of Sub-Releases.
A unique identifier that links several Web Service Calls/Responses together.
A Release, communicated in a Release notification that does not represent the main purpose for sending the
NewReleaseMessage. When communicating a 10-track album, a typical
NewReleaseMessage would contain, besides the Main Release, ten Track Releases (i.e. one for each sound recording that together make up the album).
An Agreement signed by two Parties.
In the context of collective rights management a Unilateral Agreement establishes the framework for the payment of monies collected by one Collective Management Organisation and due to Rights Holders represented by the other. Such payments are not reciprocal and are made from the collecting Party to the Receiving Party only.
See also Bilateral Agreement
The identification of the Releases and Resources that actually get exploited by Licensees exercising a range of business and delivery models for the distribution of Releases to consumers, including the amount of use of each Release or Resource.
An Agent, that may be a human being or other legal person or corporate entity, that interacts with a Creation or provides access to a Creation to Consumers.
A modern set of web technologies that allow small pieces of information, typically in the form of XML files, to be exchanged. Augmented with FTP (or other file exchange mechanisms) they can be used to communicate Releases along the music supply chain.
Web Service Call
The sending of an XML document to a port/address on a web server, using HTTP or
Web Service Response
The sending of an XML document in direct response to a Web Service Call, using HTTP or
The WsAcknowledgementMessage may not be used as a Web Service Response unless expressly specified within a specific standard.
For the avoidance of doubt: the appropriate response is always the message indicated in the appropriate Choreography.
A creative creator of the musical or lyrical elements of a
Musical Work. Writers include Adapters, Arrangers, Authors, Composers. ComposerLyricists, Librettists, Lyricists, NonLyricAuthors and Translators.
See Manuscript Share.