An XML message notifying the successful receipt of a Batch or File. In an FTP context this means successful ingestion. In a Web Service context in means the reply to a Web Service Call.
A Party administrating Rights on behalf of one or more RightsControllers (in the context of this standard a Collecting Publisher).
Appointed Conformance Agency (ACA)
A Conformance Agency that is appointed by Digital Data Exchange, LLC (DDEX) to certify that a party Conforms to a Conformance Set.
Note that, at this stage, neither are there any Appointed Conformance Agencies in existence nor are there any specific plans for DDEX to appoint such Appointed Conformance Agencies.
A company that sends or receives DDEX messages on behalf of other companies. Aggregators enable smaller companies to participate in the DDEX ecosystem.
Formally, the Atom Syndication Format, is an XML language used for web service feeds. The Atom Publishing Protocol is a simple HTTP-based protocol for creating and updating web resources.
A grouping of one or more DDEX Messages to be processed by a Recipient together.
A subset of a DDEX message suite standard that limits the use of data fields for use in a specific business scenario. Business Profiles do typically not limit the descriptions of Releases and their constituent parts but focus on Products based on such Releases.
Business Profiles are defined by DDEX and are themselves DDEX standards.
A well-defined collection of Releases.
Note that the XML tags use the spelling “catalog” instead of catalogue.
A RightsController who is, at the time of assertion, controlling the right to collect royalties for a specific RightsType in a specific Territory for a specific Musical Work. Collecting Publishers may ask Administrators to administer some of their rights. Note that a MusicalWork may have zero, one or many Collecting publishers.
Collective Rights Organisation
A Party that is an Administrator on behalf of many Rights Controllers usually in respect of one territory. A Collective Rights Organisation may also be a Rights Controller.
The terms compliance or compliant are used synonymous to Conformance and Conformant.
Full Conformance or Partial Conformance.
A Party that offers Conformance certification services to test conformance of other parties. A CA can either be a Private Conformance Agency (PCA) or an Appointed Conformance Agency (ACA).
Conformance Agencies are entitled to issue Conformance Certificates.
A document awarded to companies that have proven that their supply chain is Conformant to a DDEX Standard in accordance with this Standard. It may be possible to issue multiple Conformance Certificates to a single company with respect to a single Conformance Set, if the company has several, largely independent supply chains.
The issuance of Conformance Certificate shall be done in accordance with a well-documented and published set of policies.
Conformance Certificate Register
A register of all Conformance Certificates, maintained and published by DDEX or by an authorised third party on behalf of DDEX.
For Partial Conformant Parties, the Conformance Certificate Register shall include information about which Conformance Points have not passed the Conformance Test and how.
The smallest set of criteria for which Conformance is defined in this Standard.
A Conformance Point is an individual numbered rule that forms part of a Release Profile or Business Profile.
A combination of Conformance Points. Conformance Sets are the smallest criteria for which Conformance can be asserted.
For Message Suite Standards, a Conformance Set is equivalent to a Business Profile or Release Profile.
An Organisation that uses this standard to test whether a company is Conformant to a specific Conformance Point. A Conformance Tester may be CA
Conformance Test Report
A report issued by a Conformance Agency indicating that a Party has successfully passed a Conformance Test (or not). Conformance Test Reports are issued with respect to one or more Conformance Point(s).
Conformance Test Reports contain information whether Full or Partial Conformance was achieved and, if only partial Conformance is achieved, a list of all failed Conformance Points.
A parameter given to each Conformance Point that can be used to determine if a Party’s supply chain is Partially Conformant or Fully Conformant.
Conformance Weightings are documented in the Relevant Profile Standard in pointy brackets as follows:
<Conformance Weighting: 1>
An entity in a DDEX Message that has the technical cardinality of 0-1 or 0-n but that is mandatory when a DDEX message is sent in a specific commercial context.
Contractually Mandatory fields may, however, be mandatory when a DDEX message is sent in a specific commercial context. In such circumstances, a message is deemed conformant only if and when it contains all the “contractually mandatory” fields as agreed by Message Sender and Message Recipient.
A Deal is what transforms a Release into a product. A Deal states how a Release may be made available to consumers.
Digital Audio Workstation (DAW)
A Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) is an electronic device or computer software application for recording, editing and producing audio files such as songs, musical pieces, human speech or sound effects.
Digital Service Provider (DSP)
A Digital Service Provider (DSP), a Party making Releases available to Consumers or other DSPs over a public Telecom network. This includes MSPs (Mobile Service Providers) and ISPs (Internet Service Providers).
The proportion of the overall Musical Work that has been assigned to a Collecting Publisher or Administrator. Note that a Writer can have zero, one or many Original Publishers, and hence zero, one or many Distribution Shares.
Flat File Sales Report Messages (DSRF)
A Sales Report Message created in accordance with the Digital Sales Reporting Message Suite Standards (Architecture and Profiles). A Flat File Sales Report Message may be split into several individual files.
Exclusive Rights Owner or Licensee
A company that is either the exclusive owner of all rights for a specific territory of all Resources within a Release or the sole licensee from an exclusive Rights Owner for sound recording/Resource rights for a The term “exclusive” here refers to those sound recording/Resource rights for a specific territory or set of territories.
A company’s supply chain is Fully Conformant to a specific Conformance Set when it fulfils all criteria laid down in the respective clause of this standard. Companies that are found to be Fully Conformant by a Conformance Agency are entitled to displaying a Conformance Certificate.
A Party that initiates the creation of a Sound Recording or Resource and is sometimes referred to as a commissioning rights holder. An Initial Producer may be a person or an Organisation and the term contrasts with the role of a Studio Producer.
A company that plays both roles of Release Creator (e.g. in communications to downstream Release Distributors) and Release Distributor (e.g. in communications upstream Release Creators).
A Party to whom permission to use a Creation (e.g.: MusicalWork, Sound Recording or Release) is granted in a License Agreement.
An Agent granting permission to use a Creation (here: MusicalWork, Sound Recording or Release) in a LicenseAgreement.
Note: In many cases a Licensor is also the RightsController.
A Release, communicated in a Release notification that represents the main purpose for sending the
NewReleaseMessage. When communicating an album, the Main Release would be said Album Release. A typical
NewReleaseMessage contains, besides the Main Release, one or more Track Releases.
An XML message signifying the delivery of a Batch.
The proportion of a Musical Work written by a Writer, as agreed between the Writers. Typically represented as a percentage or a fraction. Manuscript Shares may occasionally vary by territory and/or rights type.
A series of message calls and their responses which together communicate a more comprehensive level of meaning between the two business partners.
Music Licensing Company
A company that is duly authorised to issue licences for the use of SoundRecordings and music videos. Music Licensing Companies may issue licences on behalf of phonogram producers, performers or both.
Note: Music Licensing Companies were previously referred to as Producers (and/or Performers) Collection Societies (PCSs).
A Work intended to be perceivable as a combination of sounds, with or without accompanying text.
Any words that are intended to be expressed with a MusicalWork (often termed Lyrics) form part of that MusicalWork; not all MusicalWorks have Lyrics.
A MusicalWork may be expressed and fixed to become part of a SoundRecording or a Video Recording, or may be used to create notated music (sheet music, scores, instrumental parts) or sound generation codes (such as MIDI files).
In some cases, the MusicalWork comes into existence simultaneously with its expression. This is common in extemporised forms such as jazz music.
The concept of ensuring that a party cannot repudiate, or refute, the sending or receiving of a message.
A RightsController who is assigned rights directly by the Writer. Note that a writer may have zero, one or many Original Publishers.
Original Publisher Share
The proportion of the overall Musical Work that a writer has assigned to an Original Publisher. Note that each Writer can have zero, one or many Original Publishers, and hence zero, one or many Original Publisher Shares.
A company’s supply chain is Fully Conformant to a specific Conformance Set when it fulfils well-defined subset of all criteria laid down in the respective clause of this standard. Companies that are found to be Partiallly Conformant by a Conformance Agency are entitled to displaying a Conformance Certificate.
The content of one Batch to be transmitted via the a Message Exchange Protocol. Payload does not include manifests or acknowledgements.
Process by which an organisation that wishes to use DDEX standards with a business partner tests the Conformance of that business partner using this Standard.
A Resource that is a main Resource of a Release. A change in a Primary Resource typically requires a new Release Identifier, whereas change in a Secondary Resource does not.
Private Conformance Agency (PCA)
A Conformance Agencies that is not appointed by Digital Data Exchange, LLC (DDEX) to certify that a party Conforms to one or more Conformance Point.
A Project combines together many Sound Recordings, Recording Components, Sessions, Musical Works and Data Carriers. A project might be a 12 song album, or it might simply be a remix. A project could be a compilation of older recordings from different projects. And a project could also be a "Various Artists" type of compilation.
A Manifestation of a Release (or another Resource) which is made available to Consumers, by sale, loan or other means. The attributes of a Release in its digital manifestation as a Product may be technical (e.g., the codec or bit rate); a mode of distribution (e.g., downloading or streaming); or a commercial term (e.g., price).
A subset of a DDEX standard. Profiles define how to use the capabilities of a DDEX standard in a specific commercial context.
A Release is an abstract entity representing a bundle of one or more Resources compiled by an Issuer for the purpose of distribution to individual consumers, directly or through intermediaries. The Resources in Releases are normally primarily sound recordings or music audio-visual recordings, but this is not invariably the case. The Release is not itself the item of trade (or “Product”). Products have more extensive attributes than Releases; one Release may be disseminated in many different Products.
Release Creator is an organisation which is the owner of copyrights in sound and/or music audiovisual recordings and/or exclusive licensees of copyrights in sound and/or music audiovisual recordings.
Release Distributor is an organisation, which is duly authorised by a Release Creator to offer Releases manifested in the form of Products to consumers. Release Distributors include Digital Service Providers (DSPs) and Mobile Service Providers (MSPs) as well as other organisations.
A set of Releases that are closely related. A typical example of a Release Family is an album communicated as a Main Release plus all the Track Releases whose Resources together form the Album.
A subset of a DDEX message suite standard that limits the use of data fields for use in a specific business scenario. Release Profiles do typically limit the descriptions of Releases and their constituent parts and do not address Products based on such Releases.
Release Profiles are defined by DDEX and are themselves DDEX standards.
REST is an architecture style of networked systems. REST is an acronym for Representational State Transfer.
A digital fixation of an expression of an abstract Work (such as a sound recording, a video, an image, software or a passage of text). Resources are individual assets that make up a Release. Typical Resources are sound recordings, video clips and cover art images.
The amount of money generated in accordance with the commercial relationship between Licensee and Licensor for the distribution of Releases to consumers.
A Party who owns and/or controls rights in a Musical Work or other Creation.
Creations include Musical Works, Sound Recordings and other Resources as well as Releases. Rights Controllers are, in the context of a licence agreement, often referred to as Licensors.
Note: In many cases a RightsController is also the Licensor.
A percentage or fraction of a right for a Musical Work for a particular time and place in which a party claims a controlling interest. Note: controlling interest includes ownership and/or administration.
The type of right covered by a RightShare as defined by relevant law. Rights Types vary between territories. Typical rights types include mechanical rights, performing rights and synchronisation rights.
Distribution of a product to end consumers. For the avoidance of doubt, the term “sales” includes all forms of distribution of products, whether revenue was generated, or not and, where revenue is generated, regardless of the business model used to do so.
A Resource that is not a main Resource of a Release. It supports the Primary Resources (examples are lyrics, cover art etc). A change in a Primary Resource typically requires a new Release Identifier, whereas change in a Secondary Resource does not.
An audible persistent manifestation of a subject (often but not necessarily of a performance).
The term “studio” denotes any facility for sound recording, mixing and mastering.
The term specifically includes large studios (such as the ones in Abbey Road in London) as well as digital audio workstations (DAW) installed on a personal computer and used in a musician’s home and portable units used for recording live events.
A Party who directs, and has overall creative and technical oversight of, the entire recording project and the individual recording sessions that are a part of the project. The Producer participates in and/or supervises the recording session and works directly with the Artist, Musicians and Engineers. The Studio Producer makes creative, technical and aesthetic decisions that realize the goals of both the Artist and the Sound Recording Copyright Holder in the creation of musical content. The Studio Producer may perform direct Performances, choose final takes or versions, and oversees the selection of songs, Musicians, singers, Arrangers, studios, etc. The Studio Producer in collaboration with the artist, assigns credits to Performers and technical personnel, and is responsible for supplying accurate crediting information to the record label or media company as official documentation. Other duties of the Studio Producer may include, but are not limited to, overseeing other staffing needs, keeping budgets and schedules, adhering to deadlines, supervising mastering and overall quality control.
Note: A Studio Producer is a person and thus may contrast with the role of an Initial Producer.
A unique identifier that links several Web Service Calls/Responses together.
A Release, communicated in a Release notification that does not represent the main purpose for sending the
NewReleaseMessage. When communicating a 10-track album, a typical
NewReleaseMessage would contain, besides the Main Release, ten Track Releases (i.e. one for each sound recording that together make up the album).
The identification of the Releases and Resources that actually get exploited by Licensees exercising a range of business and delivery models for the distribution of Releases to consumers, including the amount of use of each Release or Resource.
A modern set of web technologies that allow small pieces of information, typically in the form of XML files, to be exchanged. Augmented with FTP (or other file exchange mechanisms) they can be used to communicate Releases along the music supply chain.
Web Service Call
The sending of an XML document to a port/address on a web server, using HTTP or HTTPS.
Web Service Response
The sending of an XML document in direct response to a Web Service Call, using HTTP or HTTPS.
For the avoidance of doubt: the appropriate response is always the message indicated in the appropriate Choreography.
A creative creator of the musical or lyrical elements of a Musical Work. Writers include Adapters, Arrangers, Authors, Composers. ComposerLyricists, Librettists, Lyricists, NonLyricAuthors and Translators.
See Manuscript Share.