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One of the main differences between ERN-3 and ERN-4 is the introduction of a PartyList. Akin to the ResourceList, it allows the label to collate all artists, musicians, writers and labels into a single list and then reference these parties from Releases and Resources. This means that recipients of ERN-4s will be able to be informed whether two sound recordings are recorded by the same John Williams or whether the two John Williams are the same:

ERN-3
<!-- In 1st Sound Recording -->
<ResourceContributor>
  <PartyName>
    <FullName>John Williams</FullName>
  </PartyName>
  ...
</ResourceContributor>
 
<!-- In 2nd Sound Recording -->
<ResourceContributor>
  <PartyName>
    <FullName>John Williams</FullName>
  </PartyName>
  ...
</ResourceContributor>
ERN-4 (Two John Williamses)
<!-- In 1st Sound Recording -->
<Contributor>
  <ContributorPartyReference>
    P101
  </ContributorPartyReference>
  ...
</Contributor>

<!-- In 2nd Sound Recording -->
<Contributor>
  <ContributorPartyReference>
    P202
  </ContributorPartyReference>
  ...
</Contributor>
ERN-4 (One John Williams)
<!-- In 1st Sound Recording -->
<Contributor>
  <ContributorPartyReference>
    P101
  </ContributorPartyReference>
  ...
</Contributor>

<!-- In 2nd Sound Recording -->
<Contributor>
  <ContributorPartyReference>
    P101
  </ContributorPartyReference>
  ...
</Contributor>

The difference between the two John Williamses in the middle example is indicated by the two different values in the ContributorPartyReference element (P101 vs P202). The above XML snippets rely on these Party definitions:

None

<Party>
    <PartyReference>P101</PartyReference>
    <PartyName>
        <FullName>
			John Williams
		</FullName>
    </PartyName>
    <PartyId>
        <ISNI>0000 0000 4587 1863</ISNI>
    </PartyId>
</Party>
<Party>
    <PartyReference>P202</PartyReference>
    <PartyName>
        <FullName>
			John Williams
		</FullName>
    </PartyName>
    <PartyId>
        <ISNI>0000 0000 3846 1225</ISNI>
    </PartyId>
</Party>

<Party>
    <PartyReference>P101</PartyReference>
    <PartyName>
        <FullName>
			John Williams
		</FullName>
    </PartyName>
    <PartyId>
        <ISNI>0000 0000 4587 1863</ISNI>
    </PartyId>
</Party>
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