A company that sends or receives DDEX messages on behalf of other companies. Aggregators enable smaller companies to participate in the DDEX ecosystem.


A grouping of one or more Releases to be processed by a Release Distributor together. The concept of a batch is used in one of the FTP Profiles of this standard.


A well-defined collection of Releases.

Note that the XML tags use the spelling “catalog” instead of catalogue.

Contractually Mandatory

Entity in a DDEX Message that has the technical cardinality of 0-1 or 0-n but that is mandatory when a DDEX message is sent in a specific commercial context.


A Deal is what transforms a Release into a product. A Deal states how a Release may be made available to consumers.

Digital Service Provider (DSP)

A Digital Service Provider (DSP), a Party making Releases available to Consumers or other DSPs over a public Telecom network. This includes MSPs (Mobile Service Providers) and ISPs (Internet Service Providers).

Exclusive Rights Owner or Licensee

A company that is either the exclusive owner of all rights for a specific territory of all Resources within a Release or the sole licensee from an exclusive Rights Owner for sound recording/Resource rights for a The term “exclusive” here refers to those sound recording/Resource rights for a specific territory or set of territories.


A company that plays both roles of Release Creator (e.g. in communications to downstream Release Distributors) and Release Distributor (e.g. in communications upstream Release Creators).


A Party to whom permission to use a Creation (e.g.: MusicalWork, Sound Recording or Release) is granted in a License Agreement.


An Agent granting permission to use a Creation (here: MusicalWork, Sound Recording or Release) in a LicenseAgreement.

Message Choreography

A series of message calls and their responses which together communicate a more comprehensive level of meaning between the two business partners.

Musical Work

A Musical Work is a Work whose expression is a combination of sounds, with or without accompanying words.


The concept of ensuring that a party cannot repudiate, or refute, the sending or receiving of a message.


A collection of Resources, combined with a deal that is marketed or sold as a commodity.


A Release is an abstract entity representing a bundle of one or more Resources compiled by an Issuer for the purpose of electronic distribution to individual consumers, directly or through intermediaries. The Resources in Releases are normally primarily sound recordings or music audio-visual recordings, but this is not invariably the case. The Release is not itself the item of trade (or “Product”). Products have more extensive attributes than Releases; one Release may be disseminated in many different Products.

Release Creator

Release Creator is an organisation which is the owner of copyrights in sound and/or music audiovisual recordings and/or exclusive licensees of copyrights in sound and/or music audiovisual recordings

Release Distributor

Release Distributor is an organisation, which is duly authorised by a Release Creator to offer Releases manifested in the form of Products to consumers. Release Distributors include Digital Service Providers (DSPs) and Mobile Service Providers (MSPs) as well as other organisations.

Release Family

A set of Releases that are closely related. A typical example of a Release Family is an Album plus all the Track Releases whose Resources together form the Album.


REST is an architecture style of networked systems. REST is an acronym standing for Representational State Transfer.


The individual assets that make up a Release. Typical Resources are sound recordings, video clips and cover art images.

Right Share

A percentage or fraction of a right for a Musical Work for a particular time and place in which a party claims a controlling interest. Note: controlling interest includes ownership and/or administration.

Ticket ID

A unique identifier that links several Web Service Calls/Responses together.

Web Service

A modern set of web technologies that allow small pieces of information, typically in the form of XML files, to be exchanged. Augmented with FTP they can be used to communicate Releases along the music supply chain.

Web Service Call

The sending of an XML document to a port/address on a web server, using HTTP or SHTTP.

Web Service Response

The sending of an XML document in direct response to a Web Service Call, using HTTP or SHTTP.

For the avoidance of doubt: the appropriate response is always the message indicated in the appropriate Choreography. The WsAcknowledgementMessage may not be used as a Web Service Response unless expressly specified within a specific standard.