Yes, it can!
Typical examples include Boxed Sets where a record company publishes both "original" albums and "best of" compilations together. In such cases the same Recording can be in one Release more than once. Two cases(*) need to be differentiated:
SoundRecordingcomposite should be used for both uses of the recording – unless there are metadata differences that need to be preserved (e.g. a change in the band name); and
SoundRecordingcomposites must be used even if all the metadata is the same. The only differences between the two
Receivers of ERN messages therefore need to consider that they might receive an ERN message containing two (or more)
SoundRecording composites with the same identifier and that two (or more)
TechnicalResourceDetails point to the same resource file.
If no binaries are to be communicated, the distinction between the two cases disappears and case (1) is the appropriate approach.
(*) There is a third case where the two (or more) recordings are of the same song (i.e. Musical Work) – but they are distinct recordings. Examples include a studio version and a live version of the same song. In that case the two recordings would be identified by different
ResourceIds and two
SoundRecording composites will need to be used. However, this case is different as these are different recordings.