Special XML characters (and how to avoid &)

Some characters cannot directly expressed in XML. They need to be expressed in a special way using XML's escape charter &. They are:


XML Representation







There are two more characters that may need "escaping". Details can be found on Wikipedia.

One example for is mechanism is the DisplayArtistName for the collaboration George Benson & Al Jarreau. This needs expressing in XML as

<DisplayArtistName>George Benson &amp; Al Jarreau</DisplayArtistName> 

Someone receiving  such information must "un-escape" the &amp; to & – otherwise, if he ingests the name as is into his database and if he then creates a new XML message, he may end up sending:

<DisplayArtistName>George Benson &amp;amp; Al Jarreau</DisplayArtistName> 

which is then displayed as "George Benson &amp; Al Jarreau"...